Often translated as “Jade Emperor of Heaven.” A formal title for God the Ruler, who governs heaven, earth, humanity, and spirits. The Korean people have traditionally known God, He who presides from the highest heaven, as Je, Sangje, Samsin Sangje, Samsin God, or Okhwang-Sangje. “Sangjenim” (Sangje plus the honorific suffix nim) is a shortened version of the title Okhwang-Sangje; “Jeung-san Sangjenim” is the title of God, who incarnated into this world as Gang Jeung-san. See also “Sangjenim” and “Jeung-san.”